Glossary of Terms

Sometimes the language in training sessions can seem like a foreign language, and often uses acronyms, if you don't know what they mean then it can be very confusing.  Here we outline simply the main terms we use and what they mean.

Training Markers

LT1 = Lactate Threshold 1

This is the first increase in lactate in a step test, it denotes where carbohydrate is being used in greater quantities.  This on average occurs ~ 75% FTP.  

LT2 & FTP = Lactate Threshold 2 and Functional Threshold Power

Whilst these are not technically the same point, they are closely related and many coaches will use them for the same point.  FTP is defined by power profiling, whereas LT2 is based on a lab test using lactate testing. 

VO2max & MAP = VO2max and Maximum Aerobic Power

Yes, VO2max is not really an abbreviation in the first place.  It refers to the maximum rate at which oxygen can be uptaken and used.  MAP is the 

FRC = Functional Reserve Capacity

This might sometimes be referred to as anaerobic capacity and is the work that an athlete can do above their FTP/LT2.  Some athletes have a very large FRC  and can maintain or repeat efforts over FTP for long periods of time.  Other athletes with small FRC are unable to do this.  This is an important factor in designing interval programmes for athletes.  For instance, an athlete with a low FRC is not going to be able to complete 7 - 8 x 4min efforts at 110% FTP, whereas an athlete with a high FRC is not going to find this as hard, they need longer reps, but less of them. 

TTE = Time to Exhaustion (at FTP)

The maximum duration for which a power equal to Functional Threshold Power can be maintained.


Stamina is a measure of resistance to fatigue during prolonged-duration, moderate-intensity (i.e., sub-FTP) exercise

FT5 & FT20 = Fatigue Ressistance at 5 min and 20min

The drop in power over a 5min or 20min maximal effort after a set amount of work.  

Pmax = Maximum power

This is the highest power an athlete can produce in a sprint, it sets the upper limit on the power duration curve (PDC)

PDC = Power Duration Curve

We use this in field testing to determine the above markers - see chart. It shows the peak power for all time points, during a determined period (90 days for example) and the modelled peak power.  This is from WKO5 other software is available. 

Trainer Sessions and Zwift 

In some of the sessions on the trainer, we use some terms

Trainer = Smart trainer or bike (Wahoo Kickr for example)

This is a trainer that has the capacity to control the resistance you have to overcome.  It will usually connect to to power meters and other apps (Zwift/Trainer Road etc) to provide a more dynamic training experience


A mode on the trainer which will control the power you ride at based on the session you are doing.   By monitoring the power you produce against the target the trainer will constantly adjust the resistance so you hit the target power at the end of the rep.


The trainer wont control your power